The historical approach to public administration focuses on management systems, processes and policies that have been practiced in the past, and then attempts to interpret them in a way that is relevant in the context of the present. There are two sides of the coin that researchers have supported, although this approach may provide rich details about what worked in the past and what didn`t, but authors such as John Pierre and B. Guy Peters say that the study of history cannot provide useful information that can be used now. And public administration students should not have such misunderstood notions. The important point is that scientists need to know when to revisit the past and when to distance themselves from it in order to draw relevant theories and conclusions. Government policy; legal approach; Opioids; Overdose; Scoping Review Other legal and government policy approaches that do not directly target the overdose crisis can inadvertently impact the risk of overdose and other harms associated with substance use. To reduce publication bias, we will conduct an extensive grey literature search for literature published for non-commercial purposes. We will also provide conference proceedings (PapersFirst [WorldCat], Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Social Science & Humanities), reports from governmental and non-governmental organizations (De Libris, EU Bookshop, EUR-Lex, WHO Library Database, National Information Center on Health Services Research, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime website, RAND Corporation website), grey literature databases (OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report) and other databases and search engines (DoPHER, Google). With the importance of the historical approach established in public administration studies, we will now see what the legal approach for public administration was. The legal route to public administration would venture into the impressive legal structure and organization of public institutions. As the name suggests, this approach was associated with laws, rules, regulations, codes, regulatory obligations, etc. It also described the powers, limits and discretions of the authority as well as judicial decisions.
Many countries, especially in Europe, such as Germany, France, Belgium and others, have chosen the legal route to study public administration. All identified studies are uploaded to EndNote V9.1 (Clarivate Analytics, PA, US) and duplicates are removed. The references are then uploaded to Rayyan (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Doha, Qatar) and any identified duplicates are removed. Due to the high number of expected results of our research, titles and abstracts are first reviewed by a single team member, who removes those that clearly do not contain a legal approach, are not related to opioid use, or clearly have the wrong format (e.g., Commentary). In case of ambiguity, the team member always chooses to start studies for the next phase. The resulting titles and abstracts are reviewed by two team members, with Rayyan independent and duplicate. First, a pilot project with 100 titles and abstracts will be carried out to test the inclusion criteria. The resulting full-text articles are then reviewed independently of each other and duplicated by two team members with Rayyan.
Again, a pilot project of 50 full-text articles will be finalized and, if this results in a lack of consensus, team members will meet to further clarify the inclusion criteria. Pilot projects with 50 papers will continue until a consensus of at least 80% is reached. Any disagreement on the selection and review of the full text on the relevance of a particular study will be resolved through discussion until consensus is reached. If no consensus can be reached, it is reached by using a third examiner. The number of potential studies identified, the number of peer-reviewed abstracts and the number of full-text peer-reviewed articles, as well as the number of articles eliminated at each stage of the study selection process are documented. The results of the study search and selection process are presented narratively and using the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews) extension.19 Given that the literature on legal approaches and government policy is heterogeneous and dispersed in the health literature, in law and social sciences, we found that scoping is the appropriate approach to answering our review questions. A preliminary search by MEDLINE, the Open Science Framework (OSF), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Campbell Collaboration, PROSPERO and Google Scholar found no existing knowledge synthesis on this topic. Marketing to children raises particular considerations. Commercial freedom of expression (discussed in Chapter 5) is valued in the United States, but Teret identified marketing to children as a rich area of research for legal interventions in the childhood obesity epidemic. This has led to many similar lawsuits against automakers for not offering airbags in cars. In 1985, when Ford Motor Company filed the required documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it said it had more than $1 billion in airbag-related litigation pending for that year. This is also the year Ford decided to offer optional airbags in its cars, Teret said.